The international community has recognized the importance of safeguarding the rights, culture, identity and well-being of indigenous peoples, who often face discrimination, marginalization and human rights violations. Several international instruments have been developed to address these challenges and to ensure that indigenous peoples can enjoy their collective and individual rights, as well as their cultural diversity and self-determination. Some of these instruments include the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the International Labour Organization Convention No. 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, and the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. These instruments provide a normative framework and a mechanism for dialogue and cooperation between indigenous peoples, states, and other stakeholders.